Infinite Tensor Product

**Definition**. Suppose $(V_i)_{i\in I}$ is a family of linear spaces. The direct sum of $(V_i)_{i\in I}$ is defined as $\oplus_{i\in I}V_i=\{(v_i)_{i\in I}|\{i|v_i\neq 0\}\mbox{ is a finite set }\}$, and the tensor product of $(V_i)_{i\in I}$ is defined as a linear space $\otimes_{i\in I} V_i$ with a multilinear operator $\otimes:\oplus_{i\in I}V_i\to \otimes_{i\in I} V_i$ such that for any given linear space $W$ and a multilinear operator $f:\oplus_{i\in I}V_i\to W$, there is a unique linear operator $\tilde f:\otimes_{i\in I} V_i\to W$ such that the following diagram is commutative: \begin{xy} \xymatrix{ \oplus_{i\in I}V_i\ar[r]^{\otimes} \ar[dr]_f& \otimes_{i\in I} V_i\ar[d]^{\tilde f}\\ & W } \end{xy} **Existence**. Let $L(\oplus_{i\in I} V_i)$ denotes the set of the multilinear operators on $\oplus_{i\in I} V_i$. Define $\otimes_{i\in I} v_i\in L(L(\oplus_{i\in I} v_i))$ by $$\otimes_{i\in I} v_i(f)=f(\oplus_{i\in I} v_i),$$ and define $\otimes_{i\in I} V_i$ to be the subspace generated by $\{\otimes_{i\in I} v_i|v_i\in V_i\forall i\in I\}$ in $L(L(\oplus_{i\in I} V_i))$. For any given multilinear operator $f:\oplus_{i\in I}V_i\to W$, in order to make the diagram commutative $\tilde f$ must be defined by $$\tilde f(\otimes_{i\in I}v_i)=f(\oplus_{i\in I}v_i).$$ And $\tilde f$ is also well-defined in this way: Suppose $\sum_{k=1}^nl_i\otimes_{i\in I}v_i^k= \sum_{k=1}^nl'_i\otimes_{i\in I}{v'}_i^k$. For any $\tau\in L(W)$, $\tau \circ f\in L(\oplus_{i\in I}V_i)$, so $\sum_{k=1}^nl_i\otimes_{i\in I}v_i^k(\tau\circ f)=\sum_{k=1}^nl'_i\otimes_{i\in I}{v'}_i^k(\tau\circ f)$, i.e., $\tau(f(\sum_{k=1}^nl_i\oplus_{i\in I}v_i^k))=\tau(f(\sum_{k=1}^nl'_i\oplus_{i\in I}{v'}_i^k))$, hence $f(\sum_{k=1}^nl_i\oplus_{i\in I}v_i^k)=f(\sum_{k=1}^nl'_i\oplus_{i\in I}{v'}_i^k)$. **Remark**. The proof seems the same as the finite case~

Exterior Power

Given two vector spaces $V$ and $W$, an *alternating multilinear operator* from $V^k$ to $W$ is a multilinear map $ f: V^k \to X $ such that whenever $v_1,\cdots,v_k$ are linearly dependent vectors in $V$, then $f(v_1,\ldots, v_k)=0$. The *kth exterior power* of a linear space $V$, is a linear space $\Lambda^k(V)$ with alternating multilinear operator $\Lambda:V^k\to \Lambda^k(V)$ such that for any given linear space and any alternating multilinear operator $f:V^k\to W$, there is a unique linear map $\tilde f$from $\Lambda^k(V)$ to $W$ such that $\tilde f\circ \Lambda=f$ as indicated by the following commutative diagram: \begin{xy} \xymatrix{ V^k\ar[r]^{\Lambda} \ar[dr]_f & \Lambda^k(V)\ar[d]^{\tilde f}\\ & W } \end{xy} **Construction**. Let $I$ be the linear subspace generated by $\{x_1\otimes\cdots\otimes x_k|x_1,\cdots,x_n \mbox{ are linear dependent}\}$ in $\otimes^k V$. Then $\otimes^k V/I$ is a kth exterior power. *Proof*. Let $\bar f:\otimes^k(V)\to W$ be the linear map such that $\bar f\circ \ \otimes= f$, $q:\otimes^k(V) \to \otimes^k V/I$ be the quotient map, and $\tilde f([z])=\bar f(z)$. \begin{xy} \xymatrix{ V^k\ar[r]^{\otimes} \ar[dr]_f & \otimes^k(V)\ar[d]^{\bar f}\ar[r]^q & \otimes^k(V)/I\ar[dl]^{\tilde f}\\ & W } \end{xy} If $z\in I$ then $z$ is a linear combination of element in $\{x_1\otimes\cdots\otimes x_k|x_1,\cdots,x_n \mbox{ are linear dependent}\}$, so $\tilde f([z])=\bar f(z)= \sum_{i=1}^n k_if(x_1^i,\cdots,x_n^i) = 0$, so $\tilde f$ is well-defined. >Then what about the infinite exterior power?

Universal Property of the Multiplier Algerba

We call an injective $*$-isomorphism $i:A\to B$ between two C*-algebra an *ideal homomorphism* if $i(A)$ is an closed ideal of $B$. The universal property of the multiplier algebra $M(I)$ of a C*-algebra $I$ is: for any C*-algebra $A$ and an ideal homomorphism $i:I\to A$ there is a unique $*$-homomorphism $f$ from $A$ to $M(I)$ such that the following diagram is commutative: \begin{xy} \xymatrix{ A\ar[r]^f & M(I)\\ I\ar[u]^i\ar[ru]_c & , } \end{xy} where $c$ is the canonical ideal homomorphism. *An application*. [If $I$ is a unital C*-algebra, then it cannot be an essential ideal of any other C*-algebra.][1] [1]: https://math.stackexchange.com/q/3046342